Friday, May 22, 2020
Throughout the American rich history, the issue of racism has always reared its ugly head, tainting the huge contributions the US has made. This issue, which has been debated since the abolition of slavery in 1886, has deeply polarized Americans due to contradicting information which makes it important to discuss and write accurately on racism for succeeding generations. Although racial slavery is an element of the past, the statistics from the Mexican American project study sample and other surveys show that the United States currently experiences another form of racism termed domestic racism. Domestic racism also known as social stratification is a system of legitimized social inequalities in which a group of people receive more of the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth, justice, opportunities and prestige at the expense of others. In the US, the advantaged group consists of rich white and in some cases black males while the disadvantaged are minorities consisting of African Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, poor Caucasians and Muslims. The statistics from The Mexican American project study which was first conducted in 1965 showed that darker Mexicans reportedly experienced more cases of discrimination than their lighter counterpart and women. Also, the education level a Mexican American received was directly proportional to the discrimination he or she experienced. This meant that educated Mexican Americans were more likely to be stereotyped than uneducated individuals of same race. Approximately 40 years later, the same feasibility study was conducted on the Mexican American population and the results showed a slight reduction in the level of discrimination. Darker Mexican Americans still wen through discrimination while the educated were less likely to be hired than their Caucasian colleagues with similar qualifications. In 2013, the Sentencing Project submitted a chilling report on the racial disparities in the United States criminal and justice system. The statistics from this report showed that although 12% of the United States population was black, black Americans made up 30% of people arrested for property offence and 38% of those arrested for violent offenses. The young were not also left out. Black American teenagers accounted for 16% of the children in the United States but they made up 28% of the kids arrested for juvenile offences. The above demographic example coupled with statistical numbers from the Report of the Sentencing Project to the United Nations draws a clear picture of the institutional racism minorities experience in the United States. It is also important to emphasize the reduced cases of discrimination Mexican Americans have faced over a 50 year period as well as the role feasibility studies and continuous educational coverage has played in reducing racism. But more can still be done if we as one nation continue to accurately document cases of institutionalized or domestic racism with a view to denounce it, so that the entire human race may become more tolerant to one another. References Ortiz, D. Telles, E. (2008). Generations of Exclusion, Mexican Americans, Assimilation and Race, 49-50, 53, 65-67. Ortiz, D. Telles, E. (2011). The Mexican American Study Project II (MASP II), 1998-2000, 20-25. Michael, L. (2009) In Job Hunt, College Degree CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Close Racial Gap, available at http://mobile.nytimes.com/2009/12/01/us/01race.html?referer= Mustard, D. (2001). Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Disparities in Sentencing: Evidence from the Federal Courts, 285, 308-309. FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division (2011). Crime in the United States, 43A, available at http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2011/crime-in-the-u.s.-2011/tables/table-43. The Sentencing Project (2013). Racial and the Criminal Justice System in the United States, 3, 5-6. Angela, Davis. (2008). Arbitrary Justice: The Power of the American Prosecutor, 5.
Sunday, May 10, 2020
Issue Essay Gre Topics: No Longer a Mystery What the In-Crowd Won't Tell You About Issue Essay Gre Topics The issue essay in GRE needs a sufficient quantity of prep before the actual test. There are many websites that likewise list absolutely free GRE test questions practice on them. An answer to any other issue will get a score of zero. You will get your essay scores approximately 10-15 days following your test date. The ETS Score It Now, is an amazing feature available for you to receive your essays graded. So, it's safe to say that in the event that you write no less than a few sentences in English, you will receive a score of 1.0. Nowadays you know what it requires to receive an ideal essay score. The best method to determine how to find a high Analytical Writing score is to examine a GRE essay sample, but doing so with no guidance can be overwhelming. New Questions About Issue Essay Gre Topics If you take a close look at the statistics below, you might have to concur with me. Some people think that scientific discoveries have given us a far better mastery of the world around us. The topics would be associated with the normal troubles. The ideal way to address environmental problems brought on by consumer generated waste is for towns and cities to impose strict limits on the sum of trash they'll accept from every household. Get the Scoop on Issue Essay Gre Topics Before You're Too Lat e There's a lot that may be judged from the written essay. However you get ready for the essays, make sure you at least write a couple of each type before you take the actual GRE. Potential essay topics which you could have on the day of your GRE are on the ETS site, so technically there aren't any surprises if you do your homework! In an essay, you're expected to compose thorough passages on the provided topics. You might find that it is possible to use lots of them for many essays don't let the very first thing that springs to mind box you in. Which type of essays will be there and what's predicted to be written. The essays are broken up into two. The essay graders understand that you simply get 30 minutes to compose each AWA essay and in addition, they know that you won't have the ability to cover every potential argument, reason and rebuttal. More creative tips on how to receive your essay graded here. This essay is one possible reaction to the statement. Since you may see, the longer the essay, the greater the grades. One more thing you must concentrate on is your vocabulary. So long as you use sensible reasoning, correct grammar and so long as you are able to defend your point intelligently and utilize precise vocabulary to convey meaning effectively, you ought to be alright. There is, in addition, the problem of grammar. Between grammar and style, it is much easier to improve. The grade of the essay will be wholly judged by your capacity to choose 1 side of the coin, and how well you're able to develop and support that decision. You'll receive your high quality plagiarism-free paper based on your deadline! If you're writing a background synthesis, in some instances it could be appropriate that you provide an interpretation of the material or have a position (thesis). No doubt it's a remarkable choice. The Importance of Issue Essay Gre Topics The ideal way to prepare is by considering the pool of topics that are listed on the ETS site. You might also want to suggest additional research or comment on things that it wasn't possible that you discuss in the paper. The survey could have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions devoted to river sports. Also a reminder you may work with me if you're searching for issue essay feedback. You may see that many Issue Essay prompts make statements that are hard to completely support. Students have to compose thei r own SOP, not plagiarize it. They should always question what they are taught instead of accepting it passively. For some courses like an MBA, they need to have work experience to be eligible for the course.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Sand Creek High School is one particular institution known for its capability of handling numerous students coming from different individualities that may at times have presented several behavioral problems on the part of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ connection with the environment that they are particularly evolving with. This is the reason why this paper is presented by the author. The idea is to primarily raise suggestions that are viewed effective by the author for further application on the systems of solution that the said high school is applying to be able to meet the needs of the students in terms of behavioral development. We will write a custom essay sample on Behavior Management Plan for High School or any similar topic only for you Order Now From the different sections of research that are primarily presented in this study, it could be observed that the informations used to furnish the ideas actually are strongly implied for practical discussion of the suggested plans of behavioral management improvement. Through this study-based suggestion paper, the strengthening of the idealism of behavioral management approach is further evaluated for further application. Making a fine comprehensive understanding of the matter makes this presentation of informations a direct implication of improvement within the existing systems of instruction applied in the Sand Creek High School. Ã¢â¬Ë Behavior Management Plan for High School (A RESEARCH PROPOSAL) PART 1: INTRODUCTION High Schools around the world naturally face a social dilemma of being involved in issues of student discipline. Perhaps because of the major issues of moral breakdown today, facing such problems may not come as easy as it particularly needed to be related with the actual situations of the society today. Undoubtedly though, psychologists and school counselors have strongly tried to answer the issues in a much more plausible approach. The implication of the matter has actually raised the challenge to school administrators questioning their capabilities of controlling the behavior of their students. This is among the many problems that school administrators today are expected to deal with. Obviously though, as the society today develops into a more less-moralized institution of human development, facing this specific dilemma may appear to be something that is almost near to impossible. This is the primary reason why educational developers today are trying their best to find ways to regulate the systems of social and internal influences that the students are receiving from in and out the school premises. High School students are usually ranging from ages 15 towards 18. It is undeniable that through these ages, individuals are highly susceptible to these particular influences both in and out the society that they are becoming the main focus of such programs that are aimed in making effective behavioral management programs that are to be implemented in learning institutions. What is the importance of this particular matter? This is what is supposed to be discussed within the study that follows herein. Case Background Sand Creek High School handles a number of different students from different races. Because of this, there needs to be an equalizing matter that would handle the differences of the students as individual learners. This particular equalizing manner is something that has to be dealing with a common factor of concern among the students, and that is behavioral advancement. Through focusing on this specific matter of common ground, the development of the suggested process of increasing the capability of the institution in handling behavioral issues among students is a vital part of institutional progress. In this study, the development of the said factor of institutional progress is further presented in assisting students in becoming the best individuals they could be through becoming behaviorally assured of themselves. Problem Human morality is indeed a loosing virtue at present. It could be noted that because of the many influences that the media and the society itself impose on the minds of the young population, it is disturbing that young learners are loosing their grip of the moral values that they are supposed to receive from their studies in school. True, the modern society became less caring on the part of teaching the young generation of the morals that they actually need to know simply because of the fact that these moral values are the ones that would particularly assist them in becoming the right kind of people that they really ought to be. This is particularly the reason why it has been made possible by educational enthusiasts as well as the educational authorities to incite moral studies within the curriculum of young learners in school. They do believe that this particular way of dealing with the problem shall be an effective process of making the young ones realize of their moral responsibilities towards themselves and the society as well (Johnson, 2002, 19). To be able to do so, the creation of several programs with regards the said aim towards educational progress and moral implication among young ones becomes among the focus of the said systems of education. According to Cornwall, Ã¢â¬Å"CharacterÃ¢â¬ is a term that is primarily used to assist humans in becoming the best individuals that they ought to be. It is has been noted to by the same author that the philosophies governing Ã¢â¬Å"characterÃ¢â¬ are particularly related to the abilities of humans to become the best that they could be while they are following certain regulations of life that keeps them within the laws that make it easier for them to be morally upright. Being upright then is the primary element that that is believed to lead people to becoming more successful in their future. However, because of the many pressures coming from the world, it could be concluded that this particular process of development is not that easy to comprehend with. (Lickona, 1992, 10) This is the reason why the rules of obtaining curriculum arrangements for young learners that are designed for them to become well aware of their responsibilities as individuals in attaining the most important factors of being morally upright is being encouraged by different learning institutions. Among the programÃ¢â¬â¢s concern is to incite respect, honesty, kindness, generosity, racial equality and other moral values that are intended to help students become better individuals for the sake of their own good and the society that they are living in as well. (Lickona, 1992, 31) One part of the program, as earlier mentioned is the implementation of regulations that help students enhance their virtue of respect towards others. Ã¢â¬Å"RespectÃ¢â¬ as noted to be one among the many virtues that are enhanced by the said program shall be the focus of discussion in this paper. The presentation of the regulations as well as the activities that are needed to be performed by students make this particular program more effective and knowingly practical for application among the students being guided. The Program for Retaining Respect in Schools This type of program certainly adheres to the aims of the administration of the school in becoming highly expressive of their goals in making the students respectful as they could possibly be within or even outside the school promises. It could be noted that this particular virtue is already gradually diminishing today. Youths become more aggressive as to how they primarily treat their parents. It could not be denied that the effects of their peers as well as the presentations that they see through media entertainment easily sinks in within their system that it begins to show out in the ways that they treat their parents or even their educators at school. The Program for Retaining Respect in Schools then primarily aims to return and furthermore, retain the respect that has already been lost by the students towards the elderly generation and their peers as well. To be further implemented, the ones pursuing the program are expected to create possible ways by which the students are to be given a chance to evaluate themselves through self-evaluation. They [the students] are then given a specific time with which they are to submit themselves to the school counselor for some personal interview sessions. The said interview questions are made more intimate to help the students realize of their roles with regards the said program in a more personal way. Later on, several seminars or even pep talks are to be held within the premises of the school that are aimed in reminding the students of the importance of the virtues concerning the enhancement of respect. (Ramsey, 2001, 21) The evaluation of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s progress shall be done through a survey procedure that is particularly made to adhere to the process of seeing of the program actually made any changes within the characteristics of the students. Once the survey procedure is over, the institution is expected to give awards to those who are deserving. The said awards could be given as grade on the moral character of the child or a special recognition of the said students with regards the improvement of their character in school. Parents and guardians are also encouraged to help within the process. Their involvement in the program would actually make the process much easier to bear on the part of the educational proctors of the children. The Issues Binding the Program There is nothing that is actually faultless in the program except for the fact that it adheres to the awarding process that might actually dim the goal of the institution in implying Ã¢â¬Å"heart-feltÃ¢â¬ improvement in the moral standards of the students. At some point, the motivation of the students in becoming well-mannered in terms of them respecting their peers and their elderly may then be solely focused on their aim of having the award. Thus making it less connected in being able to become the model students who are upright enough to stand up for themselves in times that they are required to respect their fellowmen which is at always. Although the awarding simply aims to attract the students and their parents in adhering to the program, what they show as an improvement on their manners may not be that reliable enough anymore. Since they are empowered to show their respect because of the aim of gaining the award, after gaining it, they may return to their old attitudes that are not merely as perfect as they have shown when they do not have what they particularly wanted yet. It has never been wrong to give incentives for good works (Short, 1993, 16). It could not be denied however that some incentives may have other effects on the credibility and the practicality of some of the programs that are implicated by several learning institutions with regards morality. This is the reason why it is very important to first examine and predict the pros and cons of the proposed programs even before actually applying them for the schools to adapt into. Evaluation of the Program Moral education has always been a part of institutional learning and teaching techniques that are offered to students within the universities. It could then be observed that through the programs that are implied by several schools with regards the enhancement of the moral characteristics of students (Jamie, 1998, 14). This aim of making a morally upright society is not that hard to predict. Overall, it could then be noted that the program that has been primarily evaluated in this paper is highly recommended for institutional adaptation. This is because of the fact that it adheres to the elements that need to be added on the different procedures of advancing in educating students through character enhancement programs. IT involves not only the students but the parents and guardians as well, making it more effective in terms of being highly related to the social growth of the people who are concerned within the said process of wakening the senses of the people in returning to moral standards again as they continue progressing as individuals in the society. Ã¢â¬Å"To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace societyÃ¢â¬ - Theodore Roosevelt The late American PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s word as posted above adhere to the fact that the implementation if character learning programs among young learners within educational institutions is indeed one of the keys in obtaining a society that is highly concerned with morality and social equality. True, the peace and security that everyone had been longing for, ever since could only be obtained once the offspring of the society, the young generation, would be educated in the right ways of moral living (Lowman, 2002, 19). Constantly adhering to the ways by which morals are to be implied must and should always be the main aim of educational institutions in equipping their students with the assistance that they need to become successful in their own lives later on. This would then help then lead a more meaningful future. Reasons For Pursuing the Study Background of the Study The schools and other educational institutions today are facing large problems regarding the issue on the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ lack of self discipline resulting to under-achievements of the students in the school as well as violence within the school premises. How close are these two issues related to each other? Mostly, the age-stage of which the student enters when he attends secondary school is ranged as the puberty stage of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. According to psychologists, this particular stage of growth introduces an individual to several major decisions that he has to face along the way towards his maturity. Hence, confusion of priorities and aggravation of depression through the environment occurs (Coon, 1999, 88). As reports could attest to this fact, it is not that hard to understand that there is an essential need of restructuring the procedures of the school when it comes to disciplining students who are attending secondary education. This is the reason why the researcher of this paper opted to discuss the issue mentioned. The timeliness of the research would indeed help in solving the problems at present especially with regards the issues of education, discipline and student achievements. Significance of the Problem The problem as mentioned earlier directly affects the achievements of the students in their schools. This means that because of the lack of discipline, the students of the secondary school level face the challenges of being misaligned when it comes to their focus and at some point become highly attracted to drugs and violence. This is the fact when it comes to school procedures. The actual reports that pertain to the said issue are indeed much disturbing and further more alarming to the institutional boards. As most of the schools affected by this dilemma are public educational institutions at [79%] whilst Private schools are affected by at least [45%], it is indeed necessary to identify the reasons behind the incidents that lead to studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ lesser interest in school and a higher rate of attraction towards drugs and violence. Through the proceedings of this particular research, it is expected that the reasons behind the ongoing issue in schools would be further regulated and controlled by institutional administrations through the use of psychological and psychosocial motivation. Research Questions To be able to attend to the most important issues related to this particular problem, the researcher decided to use the following questions as guidelines for the completion of this particular study: Ã¢â¬ ¢ What are the primary sources of the discipline of the students? Do those sources pertain to the personal or the social connection of the students to the society? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How are students reacting to the discipline that they learn from their homes and from their environment? What are the elements that are so far affecting the vision of the students towards their achievements in school as well as towards their future? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How are drugs and violence related to the effects of lack of discipline among students? These particular questions shall serve as the primary foundation of the study. These questions shall be the settling ground of the researcher in finding the right sources for the completion of this paper as well as deciding on the right method to be used to collect actual data for the validation of this study. Purpose of the Study To add up to the stress that this study places on the topic to be discussed in this paper, the following presentation of the purposes would primarily support the existing statements of the problem to assist in the validation of the facts that are to be presented. The purposes of this study are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ TO assist the ongoing researches on school studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ discipline issues and help the institutions solve the impending results of the said problems. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To make assessments on how the issues could be investigated through the use of psychological assessments and actual-report-based evaluations of the situation. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To strengthen the procedures of student motivation that is already currently used in schools in the society today. The utilization of these purposes within the completion of this study certainly helps in aligning the focus of the researcher. Hence, by doing so, the researcher expects that the focus would be on the cycle of events that involve the source of discipline, the results of the influential elements of the environment to the discipline of the students and the future of the students afterwards. PART 2: LITTERATURE REVIEW Background of the Information Education has and will always be an important aspect in the society. This idea is mainly true because of the fact that it ensures an individual sense of responsibility and it promotes independence by equipping individuals in the society valuable knowledge and skills for them to survive and become existent to their purpose. In general perspective, education significantly promotes the development and further advancement of the society as a whole by enabling the young people to become knowledgeable individuals capable of enhancing the current lifestyle and culture of the society. Thus, in like manner, the act and concept of teaching is indeed significant since it is one and the major link between education and the society. Teaching in either private or public educational institutions is always perceived to be a great and respectable profession however, challenges and problems also exist in this field. Personally, this author also recognizes the importance of the concept of teaching to the society because of its significant benefits it offers for the individuals seeking knowledge and education. Secular teaching in the established educational institutions is generally considered by this author as a profession that is well honored and valued by the people (Mather, 2006, 18). However, many problems and issues are still needed to be address and developed to fully recognize the significance of this concept for the society. Society has always been increasing and the population and likewise its number of students because of which, facilities in the educational institutions must also be expanded to accommodate the said increase. This author believes that every student has their own right to claim and have access to education thus they must be given a way for them to do so. Aside from the classroom, outside facilities must also be given to the student population such as laboratories, athletic fields and others (Gabelnick, 1990, 17). These facilities will greatly promote the enthusiasm and the educational pursuit of the students and also aid in their complete personal development in different humanistic aspect. Teaching, generally also involves the professional and interaction between the students and the teacher wherein it is culturally perceive that the teacher has the authority over the situation. However, this author believes that the grounds for the authoritarian aspect should only concern the issue of respect of position between the two and should not be abuse. To develop a harmonious educational environment, this author believes that a certain bond or connection must instead be develop by the teacher to his or her students that is based on the grounds of understanding wherein each of the two can actually learn and develop from their relationship. Through this concept, teacher can actually promote an environment for their students wherein they can grow and develop in both the academic and personal aspects. (Knapczyk, 2004, 21) Teaching should also involve the aspect of relating the students to the social community they belong with. This concept will involve teaching the students their social responsibilities, its process of enactment, and its significance for the society. Through this concept, students will also learn to participate in their community and become socially responsible individuals (Ramsey, 2001, 41). Education is not only focus on the secular education aspect of the individuals involve in it. This writer strongly believes that the concept of education also transcends all of the basic aspect of the personal development wherein it involves the physical, emotional and social realm of the personal qualities of the human being. These aspects are indeed important and must be addressed by primarily the teacher in his or her goal of guiding the students in their development to become responsible units in the human society. The Relation of Teaching to the Aspects of Student Behavioral Management Education has always been an important aspect in the course of personal and societal development as a whole. Every individual has an urge and personal willingness to learn valuable information that varies from either practical knowledge o scientific ones. However, all of these relevant informations are very much needed by every individual to be able to develop their own self and become self-sufficient and productive members of the society. Education has many methodologies from which one individual can attain it in a scientifically formulated pattern. This is actually the main pattern accepted and utilized by all educational institution in their formal learning process and even implemented by those who implement informal ones. Gradual and progressive pattern is the most effective and easiest way used in learning process because it mainly accommodates normal brain development and innate learning abilities of the person. In this learning process, the main methodology commonly used in the per curriculum basis encompassing teaching instructions for learning individuals. Curriculum is literally defined in education as a set of courses regarding different classes or subjects offered in different educational institutions such as a school or a university. Embedded in its process are different specific classes for minor and major aspects that are all conjoined in adherence to the course objective of the entire curriculum. This is actually formulated and expressed in terms of its learning outcomes and for the development of the students taking up the said curriculum. Curriculums in general, whatever its subject or class is, are all created to envelope the learning process of individuals learning their specific course to develop and acquire valuable and relevant skills in that specific field. The main learning approach commonly used in the curriculum teaching is based on a set of instruction, which are all directed to guide the students in the gradually process of learning in the curriculum. Instructions are a basic aspect of the learning process. They are all formulated to guide students in their gradual learning process in their respective fields. In educational curriculum, instructions serve as a form of communicated information that has a command and explanation nature. Thus, instructions are descriptive explanations for how an action, behavior, method, or task is to be begun, completed, conducted, or executed. Because of their significant relevance to the learning process of individuals, instructions are explicitly used in the approach system and learning process in a curriculum. Learning instructions are generally formulated and given to students to guide them in discovering and thus learning the different specific informations and processes that are significant in the execution and completion of their respective subjects that are enveloped in their curriculum. With consideration of the definition and significant or the two main aspects in the learning process, curriculum and instruction have a direct relationship with each other. In the education aspect, curriculums are generally composed of specific set of instructions in specific subjects based on its respective course. Instruction are formulated and applied by the educational institutions to guide and educate explain to their students the knowledge and information in the different subjects encompassed in the gradual learning process of their different curriculums in every courses or fields. Thus, curriculum and instructions go side-by-side in systematically developing and directing the educational system to better address the normal mental development and innate learning process of the students thus encouraging more productive and efficient learning approach for the society. Constant Discipline and the Programs needed to implement it In Schools What Psychology Says and how Anthropology Relates Both psychology and anthropology concentrate on the behavioral study of humans. Through the use of the said studies, the reasons behind the occurring behaviors of students in secondary school could be well identified. With regards the issue on discipline and how it affects the students, Psychologists claim that the situation is much controlled by the upbringing of the students. The original discipline that they receive from their homes are supposed to be the basis of why they act the way they do when they are already mingling with their peers or with the society as it is. (Coon, 1999, 89) Moreover, girls of the same age are differently reacting to the discipline that they receive from their homes compared to that of the boys. Anthropological studies attest to the claims of psychology as the said field of human understanding particularly points out the instance by which the discipline received by students from their homes are directly affected by the elements of the environment when they already begin to mingle with their peers or the society. As mentioned earlier, the effects vary. To young girls, the discipline that they receive from their homes are more likely more evident in their system of dealing with others as young girls are expected to be more emotionally and personally attached to the their families compare to that of the boys who are at some point more affected by the elements of change that they encounter in dealing with other people especially with their peers (Coon, 1999, 90). Knowing the sources of the discipline, it is essential to evaluate the claims of both psychology and anthropology through the use of the actual reports that are further presented for better understanding of the readers. What Actual Reports Say Discipline is one primary element that is highly needed in schools, however, the irony pertains to the fact that it is also the primary element that is lacking in the said system of social connection at present. According to William, of Kenya, things have changed in this regard in Africa too. He said: Ã¢â¬Å"Discipline among the children is on the decline. When I was growing up [he is now in his 40Ã¢â¬â¢s], teachers ranked among the most respected people in African society. The teacher was always seen by young and old as a role model. This respect is on the decline. Western culture is slowly influencing young ones, even in rural Africa. Movies, videos, and literature depict lack of respect for authority as something heroic. Ã¢â¬ (Awake! 1999, 25) Giuliano, who teaches in Italy, laments: Ã¢â¬Å"Children are affected by the spirit of rebellion, insubordination, and disobedience that permeates the whole of society. Ã¢â¬ (Awake! 1999, 29) Sad to say, drugs have also become a problem in schoolsÃ¢â¬âso much so that U. S. teacher and author LouAnne Johnson writes: Ã¢â¬Å"Drug-abuse prevention is part of nearly every school curriculum, starting in kindergarten. [Italics ours. ] Children know much more about drugs . . . than most adults do. Ã¢â¬ She adds: Ã¢â¬Å"Students who feel lost, unloved, lonely, bored, or insecure are most likely to experiment with drugs. Ã¢â¬ (2002, 51) Amira teaches in Guanajuato State, Mexico. She admits: Ã¢â¬Å"We face problems of violence and drug addiction in the family that directly affect the children. They are immersed in an environment in which they learn foul language and other vices. Another big problem is poverty. Although schooling here is free, the parents have to buy the notebooks, pens, and other materials. But food must come first. Ã¢â¬ (Johnson, 2002, 59) In the United States, recent shooting incidents at schools have highlighted that gun-related violence is not a minor problem in that land. One report states: Ã¢â¬Å"It is estimated that 135,000 guns are brought to the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s 87,125 public schools each day. To reduce the number of guns in schools, officials are using metal detectors, surveillance cameras, specially trained dogs to sniff out guns, locker sweeps, identification tags, and a prohibition against bringing book bags to school. Ã¢â¬ (Teaching in America) Such security measures make one ask, Are we talking of schools or prisons? The report adds that more than 6,000 students have been expelled for taking guns to school. (Johnson, 2002, 29) How to cite Behavior Management Plan for High School, Essays
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
Wilhelm Wundt Essay Wilhelm Maximiliam Wundt stands as a historical figure in the development and propagation of experimental psychology. He is known as the founding father of the first laboratory for psychology. He was born in Neckarau, German in 1832 and died in 1920. He was born to Titchener who was a minister in Lutheran. When he was aged six, his family vacated to Heidensheim at Baden. Wundt grew as a young precocious boy under the pupilage of Friedrich Muller who was an assistant to his father. He studied at Heidelberg and Gymnasiem before joining University of Tubingen while at the age of 19. However, he took a transfer to University of Heidelberg after one year and took medicine as his major. He declined medicine and joined physiology under the tutelage of the founding father of experimental psychology Johannes Muller. He took his doctorate degree at the age of 24 in Heidelberg and shared great moments in studying physiology with Hermann von Helmholtz in the same study physiology laboratory.In 1 871, Helmholtz left Heidelberg as a professor in physiology which gave Wundt the chance of replacing him. He however transferred to University of Zurich and became the chairman of inductive philosophy. In 1875, he was appointed in chairing the department of LeipzigÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy. (http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/wundtprofile.htm)He widely participated in politics while at Heidelberg. Ceremoniously, he was appointed in Baden parliament. As an icon in various disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, physiology and other disciplines, he wages an enormous attribute towards developing psychology. His work dominated various spheres of learning such as books, lecture halls and arenas.Ã His writings are estimated to totaling to 53000 pages which included articles in areas such as vision, hypnotism, human and animal psychology, poisons, spiritualism, politics, medicine and other areas of contagious human knowledge. Great foundations marked WundtÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophical propagation. Generally, the position of the early 19th Century psychological standpoint was hallmarked by Kantian argument that scientific psychology was ideally impossible (Cronax-Hillix, Terry, 1990). The dogmatic inadequacy posited by Kant on psychology gave Wundt a base with which he would extra ordinarily explore the subject matter of psychology.The epic towards founding experimental psychology by Wundt was a struggle in disregarding the contemplations posited by other scholars and early philosophers like Max ,Weber, Emmanuel Kant and others. His foundations on the subject matter of experimental science in psychology started when he Ã¢â¬Å"triangulatedÃ¢â¬ the various options about the same area of knowledge as formerly developed by others. Firstly, the starting point of his psychological development was by rejecting FechnerÃ¢â¬â¢s mysticism but at the same time maintaining the state of his approach in experimental psychology. In the same point, he maintained the pure state of physical interpretation on physiological experiments as propagated by Helmholtz. This was through his argument that any human experimentation revealed regularities of reality about the inner human psychology (Brent, Richard, 1997). The foundations of his exploration in the world of pragmatic knowledge were based on establishing a system of philosophico-scientific knowledge, politics and practice. He had a length admiration in developing his career through output of coherent ideas and philosophical attributes that addressed different spheres of human concern. However, despite a wide dimension of scope in the areas of human knowledge, great attribute goes to his contribution in psychology.The philosophical rational for studying Wundt is based on two conceptions. At one level, his arguments that age more than 100 years about legitimizing the non-reductionist account on human consciousness have been challenging as well as a resource scope of study to the philosophy of the mind and contemporary psychology. Nevertheless, in providing a tolerable ground in understanding the relationship between the traditional and the modern philosophy. Though there exists a wide domain of influence by him on different topics such as phenomenology, pragmatism and the neo-Kantianism, Wundt can perhaps be credited of developing the empirical methodologies together with his students that gave philosophy the chance of separate existence to the discipline of philosophy (Tracy, Michael, 2005)Across his historical biography, he is described as participating greatly towards different spheres of life. This includes his span in career development, politics, philosophy, administration and others preferential aspects. His career development also encompassed great acquisition of pragmatic and valid knowledge by been a student and later a lecture for philosophy and psychology at the university. In such for this true domain of knowledge, he continuously interacted with various do mains of human societal structures which gave him the capacity of writing many articles on different spheres of human life. Additionally, his wide participation in politics and change for the human society remains implicit in internalizing the contributions of Wundt in spheres of psychology.(http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/wundtprofile.htm)The realm towards his synthesis of psychology came towards the end of the 18th Century. This was fostered by the influence in the change of psychology as a discipline in philosophy. Psychology as formerly defined was changing the heart of its meaning such as the Ã¢â¬Å"mental substanceÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"soulÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"the mindÃ¢â¬ and other aspects. However, the start of 19th Century saw a further change in psychology by regarding it to imply the state of Ã¢â¬Å"inner experienceÃ¢â¬ or even human consciousness but which was different from the accounts of natural science of the sensible and external reality. The con troversial aspect of psychology led to an expanded framework of debate and the synthesis of a wide domain in explanations of what encompassed Psychology. However, Wundt brought all this controversy to a state of more rational description. WundtÃ¢â¬â¢s invitation to studying psychology was fundamentally influenced by the arguments of people such Max Weber, Kant, Ben-David and others substantial icons. In study of his historical biography however, it fetches great philosophical authenticity in analysis his dimensions of concern in the subject matter of psychology. Down his history, Wundt expounded various study dimensions in defense of his theoretical development of psychology(Cronax-Hillix, Terry, 1990).Object and method of Experimental psychology.i) ObjectExperimental psychology was the starting point of WilhelmÃ¢â¬â¢s search for adequate knowledge on psychology. To him he believed that the state of describing consciousness was the basis of experimental psychology. In order to d evelop a more concise understanding in psychology, Wundit identified Ã¢â¬Å"experimentalÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"physiologicalÃ¢â¬ psychology. According to him therefore, experimental psychology entailed the study of the human consciousness which was through the aid of experimental protocols founded on natural sciences. The definition of psychology as developed by Wundt compounded of two aspects. Firstly, the state of consciousness was susceptible to experimentation. However, this argument was literally rejected by Kant. Secondly, psychology had it sole object consciousness which was the mental object despite conceived as been experimental (Tracy, Michael, 2005)The basic definition of consciousness by Wundt was the state of Ã¢â¬Å"inner experienceÃ¢â¬ . To him, consciousness was the real and immediate phenomena that constituted the inner experience. There promulgated nothing beyond its proximities that established psychology whether psychophysical or physiological. In developing his psychological understanding, he did not separate psychology and soul. To him therefore, psychology develops to that which has a soul. This was his representation as been a radical empiricist. Accordingly, he described psychology as determined in whole or exclusive by what it predicates. Either, such predicates have their sole derivation from internal observations that are direct to what is been studied. Individual psychology also provided psychological inquiry. Consequently, every individual psychology was to become scientific when the inner phenomena went through experimental manipulation. Instead of accepting blindly what Kant had posited about injunctions to any possible scores of scientific psychology, he formulated that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s inner experiences had certain susceptibilities towards mathematical representation and experimentation (Cronax-Hillix, Terry, 1990).ii) MethodIn his drive towards rationale in psychology, he addressed the objections that had been argued by oth er philosophers in credit of psychophysical and physiological experimentation. His argument was based on the inquiry of how the complex phenomena that entailed the mind-body problem could be argued in physiological standpoint that resulted to psychological interpretation. According to him on the physiological state of argument, any experimentation that had response and stimulus were not adequately experiments about sensation (Donald, 1996). However, these were externally observed reactions and excitations of muscular tissues and nervous system. His innovations were modeled as an attempt of projecting the experimental rigor found in physiology in a wider domain founded by the inner experience trough a supplementation process of such experiments with procedures that were purely psychological. These procedures compounded his conventional method of Selbstbeobachtung which meant introspection or even a better state of self-observation. The development of KantÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological model was based on the argument that that distinguished the inner and the external states of self experiences (Cronax-Hillix, Terry, 1990). Ã To him, since the inner experience fully distinguished itself from what came externally, every level of psychological development started with self observation which meant that the physiological experiment came as ancillary function. However, in support of self observation, Wundt debated on what was perceived by the other proponents of psychology as arguing that such self observation mainly compounded a paradoxical identity between the observed object and observing the subject. However, his argument towards the liberation of the ambiguity was that, the people were only altered by the phenomena that existed in the direction of attention between the coinciding states of the observed object and the observing subject (Brent, Richard, 1997).Individual psychology by WundtSensationLike the other early empiricists, he laid his concern in both perception and sensation in modeling human psychology. To him, sensation provided the closest connection between the physical world and the body. He argued that the apparatus of somatic sensory and sensations were highly important in developing human psychology. This was because sensations were mainly the points of contacts between the physical world and the psychological factors.Ã Sensations were therefore responsible for two-sided state of inquiry (Donald, 1996). First, it compounded the external state of environment in a stimulus. Secondly, it compounded the internal framework of psychological imagery that was defined by the provisions of the mental representation. Therefore, the Wundt psychological model encompassed the control over the external state of psychological experiment with which it generated a diverse framework of internal representations that appeared only to an introspective observer. Accordingly, the level of representations which constituted the innate contents of this co nsciousness had their source in sensations. Either, every pure sensation had three fundamental characteristics which are the Ã¢â¬Å"feeling-toneÃ¢â¬ , intensity and quality (Tracy, Michael, 2005). However, the intensity and quality of sensations was important in understanding the concept of psychological experimentation. Every sensation possessed an inner experience which was measured in the level of its intensity when a comparison was made between such different sensations. Additionally, sensory stimuli of the outer environment were measurable only by using physical methods. Psychology was then used in determining the extend of degree with which the immediate estimations in the strengths of the sensory stimuli corresponded or deviated from the real strength of this stimuli (Cronax-Hillix, Terry, 1990). The psychophysical measurement gave out to two complimentary tasks. Firstly, it determined the limitation in the values with which the state of stimulus changes was accompanied by the corresponding changes in the level of sensation. Elsewhere, it investigated the level of any lawful reactions that came between the change in the sensation and the change in the stimuli. Consequently, sensation could adequately be measured respectively to the change in the intensity that corresponded to change in stimuli strength. (http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/wundtprofile.htm)ConsciousnessThe general psychological dispensation provides consciousness as component of the subjects: feeling, representation and willing. To Wundt, willingness and representations posited great concern in his psychological propagation. According to him, representational acts and representations were distinct though different aspects within a one flowing process. This was the formula towards the theory of actuality. To him, representations came as representational acts but not objects that showed constant properties as the proponents in the theory of substantiality (Donald, 1 996).The theoretical background of his development in psychology was rooted on the argument that the origin of consciousness was in sensations. However, such consciousness is not purely in atoms of individual sensations but rather occurring in a compounded autonomy. Wundt argued that sensations were connected to these representations through spatial ordering or temporal sequencing. Nevertheless, these representations were formed through sensations got through psychological synthesis. The form of representational synthesis was therefore the main characteristic feature in formulation of consciousness Ã (Cronax-Hillix, Terry, 1990).Experimental psychology in a theoretical frameworkWundtÃ¢â¬â¢s concern in experimental psychology was rooted in what constituted physiological psychology. To him, such physiological psychology depended on self observation rather than learning and sensation that were held in physiological inquiry. This state of self-observation was important in the analys is of the inner phenomena that defined consciousness (Brent, Richard, 1997)ConclusionThe historical standpoint of Wundt came as a refuge of great concern towards the ideals of psychology. He stands as a icon of diverse historical barometer towards developing a rationale in the aspects of experimental psychology. He founded himself as a structurilist with great search towards understanding human mind through a deepened evaluation of the constituting parts of the human consciousness. This was in his understanding that just like any chemical compound, the human state of mind was composed of various elements that were broken into different constituent parts. His imagination of psychology was as a form of science which gave the support that consciousness composed of various identifiable parts. Though governed by physiological and scientific approach towards studying psychology, he constantly employed the subject methodology of introspection though disregarded currently as providing no em pirical data (Donald, 1996)Wundt stands to be one of the concrete fathers that gave a light in psychology. His several works in physiological psychology have continued to be hallmark texts in studying psychology. Down his history as a re-known scholar, he extensively wrote texts on various subjects including psychology. Physiology, physics and philosophy. This writings are known to have been done across in his 65 years exploration in his career that was governed by a wide framework of thoughts. Wundt was devoted in understanding different areas of knowledgeReferenceBiography of Wilhelm Wundt. Retrieved on 9th July 2008 from http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/wundtprofile.htmBrent, D Richard, N (1997) Towards a Theoretical Psychology: Should a Subdiscipline Be Formally Recognized? American Psychologist, Vol.52Cronax-Hillix, W, Terry, A Timothy, W (1990) What would You Tell Professor Wundt. Teaching of Psychology, Vol.17Donald, K (1996) Lightener Witner and the First 100 Years of Clinical Psychology. American Psychologist, Vol.51Tracy, B Michael, T (2005) The Lost Millennium: Psychology during the Middle Ages. The Psychological Record, Vol.55
Friday, March 20, 2020
John Dos Pasos essays There are few authors that have contributed greatly to American literature. One of these authors that have accomplished this task is John Dos Passos. He is considered to be one of the greatest novelists of all time. He shared his wide range of political views in such classic works as the U.S.A. trilogy. John Dos Passos helped the country through the progressive era and other social upheavals into the Industrial Revolution through his works. He is widely considered one of the greatest American authors ever. John Dos Passos was born January 14, 1896 in Chicago, Illinois. He was the illegitimate son of a widow, of Portuguese decent. His father was Portuguese also and worked as a successful lawyer. raised by his father, Dos Passos was brought up in the Catholic tradition. Throughout his childhood, he traveled in Europe and North America receiving a good education. After touring Europe and America, Dos Passos, then attended Harvard University. He graduated Cum Laude in 1916. Soon after college he volunteered as an ambulance driver in World War I. During this time he discovered his ability to write, and eventually this lead to his writing his famous trilogy. U.S.A. The U.S.A. trilogy describes the history of the United States from 1900 to 1930. Dos Passos took interest in Republican politics, which was reflected in his early works. During his illustrious career he was a member in many organizations such as American Arts and Letters, and he founded and he founded the New Masses in 1926. Dos Passos was greatly affected by the trial of Sacco and Vanzetti, in which he was unsuccessful at gaining their pardon. After this affair he worked as a correspondent for Life magazine and for the government in Central America. He then worked as a lawyer until his death in September 28, 1970 of an apparent heart attack. Dos Passos died in Baltimore, Maryland at the age of 74. John Dos Passos is widely...
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Killer Whale Dorsal Fin Collapse For some time, theres been a heated debate about whyÃ killer whales in captivity have dorsal fins that are flopped over or collapsed. Animal-rights activists say that these fins collapse because the conditions under which killer whales - orÃ orcas - are held in captivity are not healthy. Others, such as water parks that keep killer whales in captivity and use them in theme-park shows, argue that there are no health threats to killer whales held in captivity and that dorsal fin collapse is natural. The Lowdown on Dorsal Fins All killer whales have a dorsal fin on their back, but the males dorsal fin is much taller than a females and can grow up to 6 feet tall. Despite the fact that the dorsal fin is very straight, it is supported not by bone but a fibrous connective tissue called collagen. All males in captivity have collapsed dorsal fins, but the condition, also known as dorsal fin collapse, flaccid fin, or folded fin syndrome, Ã¢â¬â¹does occur in many captive females. Scientists are not certain why orcas have dorsal fins or what purpose the appendages serve. But, there is some speculation.Ã Whales OnlineÃ says that the large dorsal fin enhances the hydrodynamics of killer whales: (The dorsal fin) helps them slip through the water more efficiently. Similar to the ears of elephants or the tongues of dogs, dorsal, caudal and pectoral fins also help eliminate excess heat during intense activities such as hunting. Orca LiveÃ agrees that the fins help regulate a killer whales body temperature: Excess heat, generated as they swim along, is released into the surrounding water and air via the dorsal fin - much like a radiator! Though there are different theories about their specific purpose, its a fact that dorsal fin collapse is far more prevalent in whales that are held in captivity. Dorsal Fin Collapse A wild orca often travels far, and quickly, in deep water. The water provides pressure to the fin, keeping the tissues inside healthy and straight. One theory as to why dorsal fins collapse in captivity is because the orca spends much of its time at the water surface and doesnt swim very far. This means that the fin tissue gets less support than it would if the orca were in the wild, and it starts to fall over. The whales also often swim in a repetitive circular pattern. Other potential causes for fin collapse may be dehydration and overheating of fin tissueÃ due toÃ warmer water and air temperatures, stress due to captivity or changes in diet,Ã reduced activity that causes low blood pressure, or age. SeaWorld of Hurt, a website operated by animal rights organization PETA, takes this stance, noting that dorsal fins of captive whales likely collapse Because they have no space in which to swim freely and are fed an unnatural diet of thawed dead fish. SeaWorld claims that this condition is common - however, in the wild, it rarely ever happens and is a sign of an injured or unhealthy orca. SeaWorld announced in 2016 that it would stop breeding whales in captivity immediately andÃ phase out killer whale showsÃ at all its parks by 2019. (In San Diego, the shows ended in 2017.) The company has said, however, that the shape of a killer whales dorsal fin isÃ not an indicator of its health. The dorsal fin is a structure like our ear, said Dr. Christopher Dold, SeaWorldÃ¢â¬â¢s head veterinarian: It doesnt have any bones in it whatsoever. So our whales spend a lot of time at the surface, and accordingly, tall, heavy dorsal fins (of adult male killer whales) without any bone in it, will slowly bend over and assume a different shape. Wild Orcas While less likely, it is not impossible for a wild orcas dorsal fin to collapse or become bent, and it may be a trait that varies among whale populations. A study of killer whales in New Zealand showed a relatively high rate - 23 percent - of collapsing, collapsed, or even bent or wavy dorsal fins. This was higher than that observed in populations in British Columbia or Norway, where only one male from the 30 studied had a fully collapsed dorsal fin, the study said. In 1989, the dorsal fins of two male killer whales collapsed after exposure to oil during theÃ Exxon ValdezÃ oil spill- the whales collapsed fins were thought to be a sign of poor health, as both whales died soon after the collapsed fins were documented. Researchers have theorized that dorsal fin collapse in wild whales may be due to age, stress, injury, or altercations with other killer whales.Ã Sources Matkin, C. O., and E. Saulitis. 1997. Restoration Notebook: Killer Whale (Orcinus orca). Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, Anchorage, Alaska.Ã National Marine Fisheries Service Northwest Regional Office. 2005. Proposed Conservation Plan for Southern Resident Killer Whales, ). orcaOrcinusVisser, I.N. 1998. Prolific Body Scars and Collapsing Dorsal Fins on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) in New Zealand Waters. Aquatic MammalsÃ 24.2,71-81.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Take Home Final - Assignment Example Family planning policy in Brazil has undergone revolution in the recent years. It has undergone a series of development over the years. In the last decade, Brazil has experienced low birth rates due to increased access in education, contraception, and family planning. In Brazil, there was interventionism and it led to a drop in total fertility rates. Many of the citizens use artificial birth control as a tool to family planning. The influence from media, movies, soap operas, and television is a tool towards family planning in Brazil. This family planning has reduced fertility rates. In the early 1960s, every household had about six children but after this transition to family planning the number of children have significantly reduced to fewer than two children (Krugman & Wells, 2006). The policy of family planning in Vietnam was developed long ago in the 1960s. The national government advocated the policy of almost two children. The local govern is responsible in executing this policy. For any additional children the district government imposed fines. Women who agreed to be sterilized were given bonuses. The government used strict tools to ensure this policy is met. Individuals who never used contraceptives their names were announced in order to embarrass them. THz government went even a step to deny people who violated the policy their salaries, jobs, and promotions. This policy led to reduction in birthrate in Vietnam (Krugman & Wells, 2006). The total fertility rate dropped from 5.6 to 3.2. This policy is a high interventionism to ensure the two-child policy is met. In a declining trade economy, its effect will be felt on the workers. In developing workers are attracted to manufacturing sectors with high wages and move from the rural to urban (Krugman & Wells, 2006). This will be different in an economy where it has deteriorated and the trade declined thus reduced rural-urban migration. Harris model is an